Anyone may, and many are required to report suspected child abuse.
Pennsylvania Law defines Child Abuse as follows:
Any recent act or failure to act by a perpetrator which causes nonaccidental serious physical injury to a child less than 18 years of age.
An act or failure to act by a perpetrator which causes nonaccidental serious mental injury, sexual abuse, or sexual exploitation of a child less than 18 years of age.
Any recent act, failure to act or series of such acts or failures to act by a perpetrator which creates an imminent risk of serious physical injury, sexual abuse, or sexual exploitation of a child less than 18 years of age.
Note: A recent act is defined as an act that has occurred in the last two years.
Serious physical neglect by a perpetrator constituting prolonged or repeated lack of supervision or the failure to provide essentials of life, including adequate medical care, which endangers a child's life or development or impairs a child's functioning. (or)
If the injury, abuse or neglect has been caused by the acts or omissions of the child's parents or by a person responsible of the child's welfare, or any individual residing in the same home as the child's or a paramour of a child's parent.
Note: Serious physical injury is defined as an injury that causes severe pain and significantly impairs a child's functioning either temporarily or permanently.
Serious bodily injury, sexual abuse or sexual exploitation committed by a school employee against a student.
No child shall be deemed to be physically or mentally abused based on injuries that result solely from environmental factors that are beyond the control of parent or persons responsible for the child's welfare, such as inadequate housing, furnishings, income, clothing, and medical care.
Note: Serious Bodily Injury is defined as injury which creates a substantial risk of death or which causes serious permanent disfigurement or protracted loss or impairment of function of any bodily member or organ.